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Ataturk's Short Chronology


Atatürk's short chronology

 

EVENTS IN ATATURK'S LIFE IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER

 

1881  - Mustafa was born in Salonika (Thessaloniki).

 

1893 - Mustafa enters the Military Preparatory School in Salonika and is given the second name "Kemal" by his teacher.

 

1895 - Mustafa Kemal enters the Military High School at Manastir.

 

1899 - Mustafa Kemal enters the infantry class of the Military Academy in Istanbul.

 

1902 - Mustafa Kemal graduates from the Military Academy and goes on to the General Staff College.

 

11 January  1905 - Mustafa Kemal graduates from the General Staff College with the rank of Staff Captain and is posted to the Fifth Army, based in Damascus.

 

October 1906 - Mustafa Kemal and his friends from the secret society "Fatherland and Freedom" in Damascus.

 

20 June 1907 - Mustafa Kemal promoted Adjutant-Major.

 

September 1907 - Mustafa Kemal transferred to Third Army and goes to Salonika.

 

6 September 1909 - Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander of Third Army and later Commander of Thirty-eighth Infantry Regiment.

 

1910 - Mustafa Kemal serves as Chief of Staff in suppression of revolt in Albania.

 

1910 - Mustafa Kemal sent to Paris with military mission  to attend  French army manoeuvres.

 

1911 - Mustafa Kemal with Turkish Forces at Tobruk and Derna.

 

13 September 1911 - Mustafa Kemal transferred to General Staff in Istanbul.

 

9 January 1912 - Mustafa Kemal successfully leads the Tobruk offensive in Libya.

 

25 November 1912 - Mustafa Kemal appointed Director of Operations, Mediterranean Straits Special Forces.

 

30 May 1913 - Treaty of London between Ottomans and Balkan states.

 

27 October 1913 - Mustafa Kemal appointed Military Attaché in Sofia.

 

1 March 1914 - Mustafa Kemal promoted Lieutenant-Colonel.

 

16 July 1914 - Mustafa Kemal sends despatch to War Minister from Sofia, urging a policy of Turkish neutrality in the event of war, with a view to possible later intervention against Bulgaria and the Central Powers.

 

2 February 1915 - Mustafa Kemal appointed to reorganize and command Nineteenth Division in Thrace.

 

25 February 1915 - Mustafa Kemal establishes Headquarters of Nineteenth Division at Maidos on Gallipoli Peninsula.

 

25 April 1915 - Allies land at Ariburnu (Gallipoli) and Mustafa Kemal stops their progress with his division.

 

18 March 1915 - Allied navy fails to force the Turkish Straits. Mustafa Kemal demonstrates outstanding skills as a soldier and commander throughout the battle at Canakkale.

 

1 June 1915 - Mustafa Kemal promoted Colonel.

 

9 August 1915 - Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander of Anafartalar Group.

 

14 January 1916 - Mustafa Kemal posted to Adrianople in command of Sixteenth Army Corps. Transfer to Caucasus front.

 

1 April 1916 - Mustafa Kemal promoted to Brigadier-General.

 

6-7 August 1916 - Mustafa Kemal takes Bitlis and Mus back from the enemy.

 

5 March 1917 -  Mustafa Kemal appointed second-in-command effective Commander of Second Army.

 

5 July 1917 - Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander of Seventh Army in Syria.

 

20 September 1917 -Mustafa Kemal sends report to Government on the poor state of the army and the country, and relinquishes his command.

 

15 December  1917 - 5 January 1918. Mustafa Kemal visits Germany with Crown Prince Vahdettin.

 

7 August 1918 -  Mustafa Kemal reappointed Commander of Seventh Army  in Palestine.

 

31 October 1918 - Mustafa Kemal becomes Commander of Lightning Group of Armies.

 

21 November 1918 - Dissolution of Ottoman Parliament.

 

30 April 1919 - Mustafa Kemal appointed  Inspector of 9th Army based in Erzurum with wide powers.

 

15 May 1919 - Greek forces occupies Izmir, with Allied approval.

 

16 May 1919 - Mustafa Kemal leaves Istanbul.

 

19 May 1919 - Mustafa Kemal lands in Samsun. This date was recorded as the start of War of Independence.

 

21 June 1919 -  Mustafa Kemal issues 'Declaration of Independence' at Amasya.

 

23 June 1919 - Mustafa Kemal ordered by the Ottoman Government to return to Istanbul.

 

8 July 1919 - Mustafa Kemal resigns from the post of Inspector of 3rd Army and from the army.

 

23 July - 7 August 1919 - Nationalist Congress meets in Erzurum under presidency of Mustafa Kemal. Declarations of National Pact are issued.

 

4 - 13 September 1919 - Nationalist Congress meets at Sivas under presidency of Mustafa Kemal. Confirmation of National Pact. Establishment of Representative Committee.

 

7 November 1919 - New Parliament elected in Istanbul with Nationalist representation.

 

27 December 1919 - Mustafa Kemal arrives in Ankara with the Executive Committee.

 

28 January 1920 - National Pact adopted by Istanbul Parliament.

 

9 February 1920 - Evacuation of French garrison from Maraş and start of general withdrawal from Cilicia.

 

16 March 1920 - Military occupation of Istanbul by Allies.

 

11 April 1920 - Dissolution of Istanbul Parliament.

 

23 April 1920 - Mustafa Kemal opens the first Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara.

 

11 May 1920 - Mustafa Kemal is condemned to death by the government in Istanbul.

 

10 August 1920 - Treaty of Sevres signed by Sultan's Government.

 

24 August 1920 - Draft treaty initialled in Moscow between Soviet Union and Nationalist Government.

 

28 September - 2 November 1920 - Nationalist forces invade regions with Armenian revolts and capture Kars.

 

6 - 10 January 1921 - Greek advance checked at First Battle of Inonu.

 

20 January 1921 - Grand National Assembly at Ankara adopts Constitution Act, based on popular sovereignty.

 

23 March - 1 April 1921 - Greeks resume offensive in Anatolia and are checked at Second Battle of Inonu .

 

10 July 1921 - Greeks resume offensive and capture Eskişehir.

 

5 August 1921 - Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Army by the Grand National Assembly.

 

23 August - 13 September. Battle of Sakarya. Turks check Greek advance before Ankara.

 

19 September  1921 - The Grand National Assembly gives Mustafa Kemal the rank of Marshal and the title Gazi.

 

13 October 1921 - Treaty of Kars between Nationalist Government and Transcaucasian Soviet Republics.

 

20 October 1921 - Treaty of Ankara between Nationalist Government and France.

 

26 August 1922 - Gazi Mustafa Kemal begins to lead the Great Offensive (Assault) from the hill of Kocatepe.

 

26 August - 9 September 1922 - Nationalist forces defeat Greeks in counter-offensive and capture Izmir, which is destroyed by fire. Turks launch final offensive against Greek forces in Anatolia; break through the following day; win decisive victory on 30 August.

 

30 August 1922 - Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha wins the battle of Dumlupinar.

 

10 September  1922 - Gazi Mustafa Kemal enters Izmir.

 

1 November 1922 - Mustafa Kemal proclaims abolition of Sultanate.

 

3 - 11 October 1922 - Conference at Mudanya agrees on Armistice between Allies and Nationalist Government.

 

14 January 1923 - Mustafa Kemal's mother Zübeyde Hanim dies in Izmir.

 

29 January 1923 - Mustafa Kemal marries Latife in Izmir.

 

17 February 1923 - Mustafa Kemal opens Economic Congress in Izmir.

 

24 July 1923 - Treaty of Lausanne signed in Switzerland by Turkey and the Entente powers that fought in World War I. After the conclusion of the Turkish War of Independence, this treaty recognized the Republic of Turkey as a sovereign nation.

 

9 October 1923 - Ankara becomes capital of Turkey.

 

29 October 1923 - Proclamation of the Turkish Republic and Gazi Mustafa Kemal is elected as the first President.

 

3 March 1924 - The Caliphate is abolished, the Ottoman dynasty is exiled, religious schools are closed down, and organized Islam becomes regulated by the state.

 

8 April 1924 - Abolition of religious courts.

 

24 August 1924 - Gazi Mustafa Kemal wears a hat for the first time at Sarayburnu in Istanbul.

 

5 August 1925 - Mustafa Kemal divorces Latife.

 

30 August - 2 September 1925 - Mustafa Kemal tours Kastamonu province, announcing abolition of fez, suppression of religious brotherhoods, and closing of sacred tombs as places of worship.

 

15 - 20 October 1927 - Mustafa Kemal makes historic speech to Congress of People's Party (CHP).

 

9 August 1928 - Gazi Mustafa Kemal speaks at Sarayburnu on the new Turkish Alphabet.

 

3 November 1928 - Introduction of Latin alphabet.

 

23 December 1930 -  Religious riot at Menemen. Trials and executions.

 

15 April 1931 - Gazi Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish Historical Society.

 

12 July  1932 - Gazi Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish Linguistic Society.

 

12 August 1932 - Turkey becomes member of League of Nations.

 

1 February 1933 - Disturbances in Bursa over decision to recite the call to prayer in Turkish.

 

31 May 1933 - Istanbul University is established.

 

29 October 1933 -  Celebration of the 10th Anniversary of the Turkish Republic. Ataturk's Tenth Year of Republic Speech.

 

24 November 1934 - The Grand National Assembly passes a law granting Gazi Mustafa Kemal the surname "Atatürk".

 

8 December 1934 - Women made eligible to vote in Parliamentary elections and to become members of Parliament.

 

20 July 1936 - Montreux  Convention  signed,  regulating the Turkish Straits (Bosphorus and Dardanelles).

 

27 January 1937 - Autonomy of Hatay agreed between Turkey, France and Syria.

 

9 July 1937 - Saadabad Pact signed, between Turkey, Irak, Iran and Afghanistan.

 

10 November  1938 - Atatürk dies at 09:05 in Dolmabahce Palace, Istanbul